Corona literacy, or Inoculating the pandemic

Throughout the corona crisis, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been trying to navigate through a stormy sea, but simultaneously gaining enormous visibility and renown. It has been summoned to explain its hesitant response to the Wuhan outbreak of this new corona strain, and now Donald Trump is scapegoating the organisation in a (typically despicable) attempt to deflect from his own administration’s failure to respond adequately to the Covid-19 pandemic. As important as it may be, however, this is not the place to enter into quarrel around Trump’s April 15 de-funding of the WHO for its alleged China-friendly bias. Instead, the purpose is to focus on the WHO for its animated educational material on health issues, epidemics, and the coronavirus crisis in particular through which it reaches out to its–by definition–global public.

Unfortunately, certainly regarding the three 2020 learning videos featured here, the WHO provides little if any information on its website regarding the makers of these clips (or the experts advising them). Indeed, knowledge of the creative environments and pedagogical concerns behind this audio-visual material on the crisis would be an interesting entry point for discussing their respective virtues and failings. Generally speaking, such videos are an attempt to simplify the scientific and policy discourse to the degree by which the non-expert and a child audience are able to make sense of it and act accordingly. These videos therefore are means of public perlocutionary speech, they interpolate the subject in its pandemized condition, and have to be read and evaluated thusly, i.e. as ideological media or mediatized ideology.

 

 

 

 

There is no need to emphasise that the education of the pandemic happens on numerous levels and in different narrative and visual registers, depending on the assumed audiences and what is assumed in terms of age, class, gender, race, etc., as well as on the interests of those doing the teaching and providing the instructional material.  This may seem like stating the obvious, but it should be pointed out here that epidemics and pandemics are actually being taught—and have been taught for quite a while prior to the arrival of the coronavirus crisis. Teaching the pandemic has been taking place in schools and other sites of formal education, most usually in biology courses. However, it is also a field of activity shared by various state agencies, NGOs, educational departments of scientific institutes and museums, as well as small DIY online projects. And they come in a–by now–familiar visual jargon and didactic modality transposing epidemiological knowledge and expertise on disaster preparation into a language regarded as suitable for the lay people and the young, to be rounded up as being pretty much “kids’ stuff.”

 

Live Science, a popular science website now online for a decade lists “activities and online resources for homebound kids” to yield its “coronavirus guide” and an “ultimate kids’ guide to the new coronavirus,” persists in rather conventional non-animated text and stock agency illustrations (courtesy of Shutterstock image).

 

Likewise, “Just for Kids: A Comic Exploring the New Coronavirus” by Malaka Gharib, an editor of the US National Public Radio (NPR) and the author and illustrator of I Was Their American Dream: A Graphic Memoir (about being a first-generation Filipino Egyptian American) is no animated video. However, in skilfully deploying the comic strip semiotics gets its message across a great deal more smartly and interestingly than the Live Science material.

 

Viola and David (surnames unknown) from Neural Academy are proponents of an independent visual pedagogy focusing on scientific and health matters. The goal behind NA, they state, “is to create funny, visually-stunning, and easily learned content to help students learn material taught in high school and university.” Viola has degrees in Neuroscience and Geoscience and recently graduated from the University of Toronto. “She tries to cover topics that are difficult to study and/or have limited online material available.”

 

 

Neural Academy’s videos on the coronavirus are 5-minute slide show-like clips, resembling power point presentations more than actual animation films, but do a good job explaining the disease’s characteristics and symptoms.

What interests me in the field of text/image online tutorials and instructional videos most, however, are the problems inherent in the reduction and modulation of the complexity of epidemiological fact. Moreover, the importance drawing and illustration art are granted for this purpose, and the background and experience from which such instructional visuals on the coronavirus crisis are produced, inform this translation and reduction that aims at didactic efficiency. The choices for style, technique, look etc. assume considerable relevance, particularly as they often tend to be neglected and ignored, simply taken for granted and thus beyond perceptive attention or out of the crosshairs of any critical perspective.

The current production of learning material targeting a young audience that is largely home-based and home-schooled these weeks did not come into existence without knowledge of preceding visual materials created for teaching and guiding through epidemics. Their efficiency in inoculating the pandemic by pedagogical means has depended by necessity on literacies developed prior to the current crisis.

 

 

Outbreak Preparedness, The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (script development: Hilary Bower, Josie Gallo, Maryirene Ibeto, Adrienne Testa, Jimmy Whitworth; animation: Alternative View Studios, London). This animation is part of the LSHTM free online course on “Disease Outbreaks in Low- and Middle- Income Countries

As to be expected, there are visual producers who have specialized on the visualization of epidemics and health hazards, supplying interested NGOs and scientific organizations with teaching aids, how-to manuals and animated guidebooks for preparation. One such web and digital content agency is the London-based Alternative View Studios, founded twenty years ago by Neil Thompson, that claims: “We entertain, educate and train through animated story-telling as well as create innovative games and websites.” AVS “combine project management know-how and creative expertise to produce animations, games and websites for the charity, education and health sectors” and “create and produce short-form animation to promote, educate and raise awareness of subjects for a wide range of sectors. Tackling subjects such as children’s mental health, malaria and Ebola with sensitivity and compassion, we ensure the messaging is appropriate and well-balanced.” Through animated storytelling, AVS venture to, “raise awareness and train viewers,” using animation as “an effective way of simplifying complex subjects.” The above clip on “Outbreak Preparedness” for the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine may serve as an example of how advanced and how limited these types of storytelling are at the moment. And also how underwhelming such didactic imaging probably has to be to actually bring about a transformation of habitual and social patterns to prepare for and help fight against an epidemic, a natural disaster or other large-scale disruptions of “normality.”

The following random selection of pre-corona animated videos has been derived from various sources (initially using TED-related videos and finally with a raft of material from FEMA and the Department of Homeland Security in the US). TH

 

 

How Pandemics Spread, TED-Ed, 2012 (Lesson by Mark Honigsbaum, directed by Patrick Blower)

 

How do germs spread (and why do they make us sick)?, TED-Ed, 2014, Lesson by Yannay Khaikin and Nicole Mideo, animation by Ace & Son Moving Picture Co., LLC (Director: Richard O’Connor; artist: Liesje Kraai; animator: Taisiya Zaretskaya; narrator: Pen-Pen Chen)

 

How Do Viruses Jump from Animals To Humans?, TED-Ed, 2019 (educator: Ben Longdon; director: Natália Faria; narrator: Addison Anderson; producer: Felipe Grosso, Odirlei Seixas, Liana Vianna)

 

Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic. A CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] Perspective, 2018

 

Introduction to Emergency Planning, FEMA [Federal Emergency Management Agency], 2015

 

Prepared, Not Scared, FEMA, 2019

 

National Preparedness Month: Prepared Not Scared 30 seconds, FEMA, 2019

 

National Preparedness Month: Prepared Not Scared (Gulf States), FEMA, 2019

 

National Preparedness Month: Prepared Not Scared (Western States) 30 seconds, FEMA, 2019

 

April 16th, 2020 — Rosa Mercedes / 02
Interface

Olena Lyubchenko on Whiteness, Expropriation, War, and Social Reproduction in Ukraine (via LeftEast): “[…] when we hear on the news that ‘Ukraine is fighting a European war’ and ‘Ukraine is defending Europe’, amid images of fleeing ‘poor white’ women with children prioritized over racialized ‘Others’, ‘Ukraine’ is being made ‘white’ in the global imaginary. That is, “the injunction to ‘return to Europe’ by way of Europeanization is enabled and conditioned on the mythologies of Western civilization, and that Europeanization at once marks (promulgates) and unmarks (naturalizes) racial whiteness” [Nadezhda Husakouskaya and Randi Gressgård]. The paradox is that Europe’s existence as such has only been possible precisely because of the exploitation of global working peoples through expropriation of resources and today neoliberal economic reforms and reproduced by feminized labour.”

Vasyl Cherepanyn about the “inertness, hiding behind the European Wall” (via L’Internationale): “Many Western institutions that have been claiming ‘radical political engagement’ for years, have simply resorted to a white cube radicalism and self-satisfying humanitarianism, too afraid of acting politically beyond their comfort zone and unsettling their publics and authorities by attempting to affect the decision-making process regarding the Ukrainian cause.”

May 28th, 2022

Tatsiana Shchurko on the War in Ukraine, Entangled Imperialisms, and Transnational Feminist Solidarity, via LeftEast (May 2, 2022): “[An] uneven knowledge production and the many implications of the war against Ukraine reveal the dire need to develop a feminist anti-capitalist critique of multiple imperialisms. This language should grow from within the occupied and suppressed communities of Eastern Europe and Eurasia. An anti-imperialist and anti-capitalist feminist positionality grasps that the local is part of a global in an effort to build transnational connections of mutual aid and support against state and corporate violence. For example, statements of solidarity with Ukraine expressed by the International Committee of Indigenous Peoples of Russia and Native American communities along with the anti-war feminist march in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) on March 8, 2022, pointing out that the war in Ukraine should be of concern for a broad transnational community, may serve as instrumental examples of alternative anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist solidarities that stretch beyond state regulations and macro-politics and foreground decolonial perspectives, necessary in addressing entanglements of multiple imperialisms. Such solidarities also bring to light hidden interconnections of the past that allowed for distant communities to survive and support each other against the violence of imperialist intervention and its attendant capitalist exploitation. Thus, the march in Bishkek reminds of the socialist roots of the International Women’s Day to call for internationalist, intersectional, class solidarity against imperialism and militarism.”

Vasyl Cherepanyn on that “It’ll take more than tanks to ease Germany’s guilt” (via Politico): “Since the Soviet Union’s collapse, Germany has been imposing neocolonial optics on its Eastern European ‘peripheries,’ and on the post-Soviet space in particular, where Ukraine was long considered a gray buffer zone about which the EU was ‘deeply concerned.’ Germany didn’t bother itself much with differentiating between former Soviet countries’ pasts. Even until recently, any Ukrainian agenda in Germany was often ‘balanced’ with a Russian perspective, so as to not exclude the latter by any means.”

An unnamed anarchist and art scholar, who joined the Territorial Defense Forces, quoted by Olexii Kuchanskyi in an essay on “Digital Leviathan and His Nuclear Tail” (via Your Art and e-flux notes): “At dawn, Dima and I talked about cinema. Dima believes that cinema is inferior to literature as a means of expression because you spend much more time with a book than a film. It’s a really interesting point, something to dig into. I studied at the department of art theory & history and I never thought of it. Dima served in the military after school and worked at the factory all his life. He listens to rap, smokes pot, and tries to have fun. He is thirty-eight, his child was born last year. He likes Wong Kar-wai and is a fan of Asian cinema in general. Dima communicates by quoting Omar Khayyam, Confucius, and other awesome guys.”

April 20th, 2022

Vasyl Cherepanyn (Visual Culture Research Centre, Kyiv) on Putin’s “World War Z” and the West’s deadly “foot-dragging”, via Project Syndicate: “The main feature of this Western condition is constant belatedness. The West has always been too late, incapable of acting ahead and instead just reacting to what has already happened. As a Ukrainian joke went at the time, ‘While the European Union was taking a decision, Russia took Crimea.’ Then as now, Ukrainians wondered, ‘What is the West’s red line? What will compel the West to act instead of waiting and discussing when to intervene?’”

Barbara Wurm on Lithuanian director Mantas Kvedaravičius, killed in Mariupol, via Die Welt: “Kvedaravičius unfolded a whole spectrum of visual anthropology over a decade with only three films [Barzakh, Mariupolis, Parthenon]. It now awaits evaluation and exploration. The time will come. The films themselves make possible an infinite immersion in the matter of the world, between dream and reality, horror and everyday life, facts and phenomenal imagology.”

April 5th, 2022
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